Glossary Part I

inshā'llāh ~ A Moham. Deo volente, partly in aid of mail security.

inshā-('llāh). As above, with feeling apparently.

inshā'llāh ta'ālā. When present, such notation is invariably found in the upper-right corner of a cover.

īsvī or 'īsawī. Here 14 navambar sanh 1877 'īsvī javāb ... The year here is of the AD calendar, which is rather scarce in the Urdu script on J&K covers. The īsvī represents the anno domini ~ sanh-e-'īsvī of the Christian calendar. The word is abbreviated by the 'ain (ع) or exuberant hamza (ء) that follows the year dating on the left. Sometimes this symbol is used to separate the two parts of the date: 18-īsvī-77.

jeţh sanh 19-?-37 ~ May 1880. What looks like the same bottle-opener has here intruded on a Samvat date for reasons (here) unknown.

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