Some va comparative forms: Dev. , Gur. , Guj. .
Contrast with ba forms: Dev. , Gur. , Guj. .


va. Also wa and and ba. No crossings.

va. Also wa and and ba. As a separate syllable va means ‘and’. This element is used for transcribing Arabic wa and Persian vav, and thus may act as an o as well.

Tibbat. Taken from the native postcard. This example shows how the va elements are crossed to render the b- explicit. Contrast this tibbat with the following tivat:

riyāsat jambū va kaśmīr tivat hā ~ State of Jammu & Kashmir & [Little] Tibet, etc. (From receipt stamp.)

Wazirabad. The w and b are rendered by the same element. Formally the ja-element would be underdotted to give the z.

The “Jamvu” style of Jammu. How it was actually pronounced we do not dare to guess. As a rule, so the rumor goes, spoken Dogri prefers the b-sound. This same scan is on the B page, where we call it the “Jambu” style.

masūl bākī (or vākī) ~ postage due.

Manāvar, Manāwar. This item is a Staal-Sharma restrike of the postmark of the Manovar post office. It is dated 20 poh, with the 20 upside-down at the top.

sāvan 18.

Jammu vić with nagari. vi-ćalan ~ moved away.

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