Glottal-stop ('a) comparative forms: Devanagari , Gurmukhi , Gujarati .

Not a vowel. The short-a associated with any of the script elements, including this one, is unmarked, or better said, marked by the 'zero' or empty sign. It is conceptually clunky to speak of the script elements as containing an “inherent-a,” for that implies that the other vowel markings and the conjunct apparatus come equipped with inherent erasers for disposing of that -a as needed. The same holds for the rest of the series of so-called independent vowels; they are all glottal stops with different positions of articulation.

Dogri 'a or 'ā. Following the common practice, we usually drop the glottal indication (') in our transcriptions. In more formal renditions, a hybrid nagari-inspired bar sometimes appears over the form, and a distinction is made in principle between short and long articulation.

Some comparative long-a diacritics: Dev. , Gur. , Guj. .
Some comparative long-ai diacritics: Dev. , Gur. , Guj. .

By contrast, in the Dogri script, the long vowel is indicated with a v-shaped superscript placed after the syllable element, and the diphthing is formally rendered by two horizontal bars written above the element. It too goes missing far more often than not.

ek 'ā-nā ~ one anna, from the De la Rue telegraph stamp. The symbol on the right is merchant notation for 1 anna, as seen on the circular stamps of that denomination. Note how the long-vowel diacritics on the “ānā” go missing on the Dogri example (left) in the following example:

ādhā ānā ~ ‘half anna’ in Dogri (left) and Hindi (right) script. The symbol on the right in both scans is merchant notation for 2 paise = ¼a + ¼a, as seen on the circular stamps.

Amritsar. If in a slightly a(m)br(i)t-sar-ish sort of way.

Amritsar, without the -t, as if a(m)barsar. Ambarsar is colloquial.

Amritsar, with an explicit -m.

More Amritsars.

Srī Amritsar-jī. Amritsar with honorific bracketing.

Amritsar Kaţra Ahluwālian.

Assoj ~ असोज ~ اسوج . Sixth month of the Hindu solar calendar, answering to mid-September to mid-October. The literature sees such as assu, asū, assūj, asauj, āsin, ashvina, etc.

asū is in the center of both datestamps.

asū 9 ~ September 23, which is consistent with the English dating on the railway marking.


asū 6 ~ 20 September.

asū 10 (not 20) ~ 24 September.

asū 1934.

asū 22 ~ 6 October, with convenient corroboration from the datestamp with it.

asū 29 ~ 13 October. Hybrid rendering, with the in Punjabi form. The diacritic below marks the long-u. Compare with preceding.

1940 asū 5 ~ 19 September 1883.

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